The Regula series of stations were designed as small, flexible platforms for long-duration scientific missions in isolated locations. These kinds of missions could last for years, keeping a science team on station for that length of time would require the commitment of either a major starship asset or a fleet of small science vessels relieving one another every few months. Either of these was a significant draw on resources, while a small fixed station would offer the same capability at a fraction of the resources.
In the 2340's, faced with the same problem they were having with the Stardock class of base, Starfleet decided to field two new bases. Both bases were based on the Regula design, but were scaled up to provide the room for enhanced capabilities and starship accommodation. Two types of bases were fielded, both had the same starship support functions, yet one was geared for sector/system defense and command, and the other for deep space scientific research.
The scientific version of the Regula boasts impressive science capabilities and, along with its predecessor, has a modular approach to it's scientific platforms, allowing various bases to be configured with different instruments. Even the lower storage pods can be swapped out for different packages depending on the particular mission.
Compared to the scientific sub-type, the combat-orientated design has reduced scientific facilities, and has a reduced capability to handle civilian traffic. The base is also designed to operate largely within planetary systems, and as such lacks large bulk cargo and fuel containers. More space is given over to weaponry, with roughly double the armament. The shield generator is identical between the two stations, but the removal of the cargo containers means that this type's shields need to cover a significantly smaller volume, and this increases their overall strength.
Regula class bases are a common sight around the Federation.